Материалы для строительства на английском языке

Материалы для строительства на английском языке

Основной целью данного методического пособия является подготовка студентов к чтению и пониманию аутентичных текстов по специальности. Тематика текстов охватывает основные строительные понятия, историю предмета и развития строительного дела, современные строительные технологии.

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3.Lesson2.”From the history of building”……………………….8.

5. Список использованной литературы………………………. 19.

Данное методическое пособие предназначено для студентов строительных специальностей и составлено в соответствии с требованиями учебной программы.

Основной целью данного методического пособия является подготовка студентов к чтению и пониманию аутентичных текстов по специальности. Тематика текстов охватывает основные строительные понятия, историю предмета и развития строительного дела, современные строительные технологии.

Учебное пособие состоит из двух частей: практической и теоретической, дополнительных текстов с заданиями, англо-русского и русско-английского словаря.

Каждый урок имеет определенную структуру: лексическая часть включает основной текст, словарь и комментарий для активного усвоения лексики урока, а также лексические и послетекстовые упражнения различного типа. Кроме того, урок содержит комплекс грамматических упражнений, направленных на введение и закрепление нового и повторение пройденного грамматического материала. К каждому уроку даются дополнительные тексты, тематически связанные с основным. Это дает возможность расширить лексический запас и кругозор студентов по каждой теме.

Учебное пособие также включает задания, ориентированные на формирование навыков монологической речи.

Англо-русский и русско-английский словари содержат терминологию по строительной специальности, необходимую для понимания аутентичных текстов.

1. Read and translate the text

The term "engineering" is a modern one. The New Marriam-

Webster Dictionary gives the explanation of the word "engineering"

as the practical application of scientific and mathematical principles.

Nowadays the term "engineering" means, as a rule, the art of

designing, constructing, or using engines. But this word is now applied

*in a more extended sense.1 It is applied also to the art of

executing such works as the objects of civil and military architecture.

in which engines or other mechanical appliances are used. Engineering

is divided into many branches. The most important of them

are: civil, mechanical, electrical, nuclear, mining, military, marine.

and sanitary engineering.

While the definition "civil engineering " dates back only two centuries.

the profession of civil engineer is as old as civilized life. It

started developing with the rise of ancient Rome. In order to understand

clearly what civil engineering constitutes nowadays, let us

consider briefly the development of different branches of engineering.

Some form of building and utilization of the materials and forces

of nature have always been necessary for the people from the

prehistoric times. The people had to protect themselves against the

elements and sustain themselves in the conflict with nature.

First the word "civil engineering" was used to distinguish the

work of the engineer with a non-military purpose from that of a military

engineer. And up to about the middle of the 18th century there

were two main branches of engineering — civil and military. T h e

former included all those branches of the constructive.art not directly

connected with military operations and the constructions of fortifications.

while the latter2, military engineering, concerned itself with the applications of science and the utilization of building materials

in the art of war.

But as time went on, the art of civil engineering was enriched with

new achievements of science. With the beginning of the Industrial

Revolution and later ther,e came a remarkable series of mechanical

inventions, great discoveries in electrical science and atomic energy.

It led to differentiation of mechanical, electrical, nuclear engineering.

It is a well-known fact that with the invention of the steam engine

and the growth of factories a number of civil engineers became interested

in the practical application of the science of mechanics and

thermodynamics to the design of machines. They separated themselves

from civil engineering, and were called "mechanical engineers".

With the development of the science of electricity, there appeared

another branch of the engineering — electrical engineering. It is

devided now into two main branches: communications engineering

and power engineering.

In the middle of the 20lh century there appeared some other new

branches of engineering — nuclear engineering and space engineering.

The former is based on atomic physics, the latter — on the

achievements of modern science and engineering.

At present there are hundreds of subdivisions of engineering, but

they all, at one time or another, branched off from civil engineering.

The term "civil engineering" has two distinct meanings. In the

widest and oldest sense it includes all non-military branches of engineering

as it did two centuries ago. But in its narrower, and at the

present day more correct sense, civil engineering includes mechanical

engineering, electrical engineering, metallurgical, and mining

*Here are some fields of civil engineering3:

1. Housing, industrial, and agricultural construction.

2. Structural engineering comprises the construction of all fixed

structures with their foundations.

3. The construction of highways and city streets and pavements.

4. The construction of railroads.

5. The construction of harbours and canals.

6. Hydraulic engineering which includes the construction of dams

and power plants.

The above enumeration will make clear the vast extent of the

field of civil engineering.

2. Key vocabulary / expressions

appliance [a'plaians] —n приспособление, прибор

apply[9'plai] —v обращаться (for —за помощью, справкой

и т.д. to — ккому-л)

branch [bra:ntj] — п ветвь; филиал; отрасль

concern [k9n's3:n] (with)—v" касаться, относиться; интересовать

conflict with nature ['neitja] — противоречить природе.

бороться с природой

deal (with) —v иметь дело с чём-л. кем-л.

divide (into) — v делить, разделять

distinguish (from)—v отличать

execute [ig'zekju:t] — v выполнять

harbour ['ha:ba] — n гавань

lead (to)—v вести (к)

protect oneself against — защищаться от чего-л.

sustain [sas'tein]—v поддерживать; выдерживать

3. Word construction (Different ways to construct words)

Translate the words keeping in mind their suffixes and

military — non-military — militarisation; enumerate — enumeration;

decide — decision—decision-maker; invent — inventor—invention;

apply — appliance — application; explain — explanatory —

build — builder — building —rebuilt; achieve — achievement;

construct — constructor—construction — constructive—reconstruct

4. General understanding. Answer the questions

1. What does the word "engineering" mean?

2. Is engineering a science?

3. Into what branches is Civil engineering divided?

4. How old is the profession of a civil engineer?

5. What distinct meanings has the term "civil engineering"?

6. What fields of Civil engineering do you know?

7. What are the most important branches of Civil engineering?

8. What invention laid the foundation for mechanical engineers?

9. When was electrical engineering developed?

10. What are the main subdivisions of the electrical engineering?

5. Translate from English into Russian

1. The ancient Greeks put a high premium on building skills.

2. The Babylonians of 1800 B.C. hammered out their messages

on stone tablets.

3. He will graduate from the university in five years.

4. Construction business also has lots of competition.

5.1 hope she will be back from her trip to Europe next week.

6. The Brooklyn Bridge was remarkable not only for the first

use of the pneumatic caisson but also the introduction of steel

7. Architecturally, Venice is very beautiful.

8. I'll take care of this matter personally.

9. Are you going to work as a civil engineer in five years?

10. Many centuries ago man learned to shape clay into blocks.

11. The Twelve Apostles are high rocks in the sea area of Australia.

12. A lot of various modern materials are widely used in civil

6. Translate from Russian into English

1. Студенты вашей группы посещают все лекции?

2. Я знаю много английских слов.

3. Мы пойдем на дискотеку вечером?

4. Аня много помогает мне с переводом английских текстов.

5. Вы купили этот учебник вчера или позавчера?

5. Лекция продлится два академических часа.

6. Студенты обычно повторяют новые слова перед уроком.

7. Мой друг поступил в политехнический институт в

8. Два года назад мы и не слышали об этом

9. Никогда не видела, чтобы он что-нибудь читал.

10. Я буду очень рада, если вы придете.

11. Занятия в университете всегда начинаются ровно в 8.30 утра.

CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES

(Grammar appendix p.p. 200-212)

Directions: Some of the sentences in this exercise are correct.

Some are incorrect. First, find the correct sentences and mark

them with a check (v). Then find the incorrect sentences, and

Nouns. Revise all the material concerning nouns.

1. The life comes from and depends on the nature.

2. The students at the university are also assigned homeworks.

3. Dam is a wall constructed across a valley to enclose an area

in which water is stored.

4. The light travels in a straight line.

5.1 prefer having my coffee with the milk.

6. The peace in the world is the goal of all nations.

7. They were accustomed to speak the English at home at that

8. The happiness is an abstract notion.

9. Staring at a computer screen for long periods of times can

cause severe eyestrain.

10. The water boils at 212 degrees Fahrenheit and freezes at 32

11. The mathematics were her favourite subject at school.

12. She is the good economist.

13. She is such the clever girl.

14. A director wants to see you.

15. The Washington is the capital of the USA.

Pronouns. Revise all the material concerning pronouns.

1. His dances well to who fortune pipes.

2. The bus leaves their at the corner.

3. Didn't you know that it was us who played the joke?

4. They completely rely on you helping.

5.1 never saw she in such a terrible state.

6. If his has any possibility to help you, he will do it.

7. After Betty graduated from Business school, her opened a

8. We know that Leif Erickson and his Norwegian companions

were the first white men to land on the North American coast in

9. It was she, Elizabeth I, not her father, King Henry, whose led

England into the age of Empire.

1. Read the text

(after Ernestine Schumann-Heink)

A roof to keep out the rain? Four walls to keep out the wind?

Floors to keep out the cold?

Yes, but home is more than that. It's the laugh of a baby, the song

of a mother, the strength of a father. Warmth of living hearts, light

from happy eyes, kindness, loyalty, comradeship.

Home is first school and first church for young ones, where they

learn what is right, what is good and what is kind. Where they go for

comfort when they are hurt or sick.

Where joy is shared and sorrow eased. Where fathers and mothers

are respected and loved. Where children are wanted. Where the

simplest food is good enough for kings because it is earned. Where

money is not so important as loving kindness. Where even the teakettle

sings from happiness.

That is home. Sweet home.

2. Tell the group what is a home for YOU?

PRO VERBS AND SA YINGS TO THE TOPIC

3. Read, translate and memorise the following:

East or West—home is best.

There is no other place like home.

4. Read and try to retell the anecdotes changing Direct

Speech into Indirect, (see Grammar Appendix p.p. 226-229)

Once a schoolgirl was at a dinner party. She was next to a very

famous astronomer at the table and she decided to talk to him.

"What do you do in life?" she asked.

"I study astronomy", he answered.

"Dear me!" exclaimed the young lady, "I finished astronomy

A rich American banker asked a well-known painter to do a little

thing for his album. The painter did it and asked a hundred dollars.

"Why", cried the banker, "it took you only five minutes to do it".

"Yes", answered the painter, "but it took me thirty years to learn

how to do it in five minutes".

FROM THE HISTORY

  1. Read and translate the text

From the History of Building

Many thousands of years ago there were no houses such as people

live in today. In hot countries people sometimes made their homes

in the trees and used leaves to protect themselves from rain or sun. In

colder countries they dwelt in caves. Later people left their caves and

trees and began to build houses out of different materials such as

mud, wood or stones.

Later people found otit that bricks made of mud and dried in the

hot sunshine became almost as hard as stones. In ancient Egypt especially.

people learned to use these sun-dried mud bricks. Some of

their buildings are still standing after several thousands of years.

The aacient Egyptians discovered how to cut stone for building

purposes. They erected temples, palaces and huge tombs. The greatest

tomb is the stone *pyramid of Khufu1, king of Egypt. The ancient

Egyptians often erected their huge constructions to conmemorate

their kings or pharaohs.

The ancient Greeks also understood the art of building with cut

stone, and their buildings were beautiful as well as useful. They

often used pillars, partly for supporting the roofs and partly for decoration.

Parts of these ancient buildings can still be seen today in

Whereas the ancient Greeks tried to embody the idea of harmony

and pure beauty in their buildings, the Roman architecture produces

the impression of greatness, might, and practicalness.

The Romans were great bridge, harbour and road builders. In

road works the Romans widely used timber piles. They also erected

aqueducts, reservoirs, water tanks, etc. Some of their constructions

аre used till now. It is known that the manufacture of lime is one of

t boldest industries used by man. Lime is a basic building material

vJSed all over the world as today so in the ancient world. One of the

J^cmans, Marcus Porcius Cato, gave an idea of a kiln for lime, production:

it's shape and dimensions. They are rough cylindrical or

r ectangular structures, built of stone in a hillside with an arched

caning at the front to enable the fire to be made and the lime to be

v^ithdrawn. Such kilns were fired with wood or coal and were extremely

inefficient. There are still many remains of kilns in some

•p laces of Great Britain as well as roads and the famous Hadrian

\^all, which was erected to protect the Romans from the celtic tribes

irlthe first century A.D. Britain was a province of the Roman Empire

f£>raboat four centuries. There are many things today in Britain to

remind the people of the Romans: towns, roads, wells and the words.

By the way, Hadrian, the Roman emperor, was also the one who

suggested the absolutely new for that time idea of building the Pantheon

with a dome. He constructed it, and alongside with a number

of other outstanding buildings such as the Colosseum and the Baths

of Caracalla, it is still there in Rome. Many ancient buildings in

K-Ome were designed by Hadrian as well as by other Roman emperoA

In a period of 800 to 900 years the Romans developed concrete

to the position of the main structural material in the empire.

It is surprising, therefore, that after the fall of the Empire, much of

tfre great knowledge should have disappeared so completely. The knowledge

of how to make durable concrete has been lost for centuries, *but

rr"ention was made of it in the writings of architects from time to time2.

Fusion of Roman and North European traditions in construction

was reflected in many ways. Buildings combined the Roman arch and

the steep peaked roof of Nothern Europe. Roman traditions were continued

in the architectural form known as Romanesque. London

Bridge, finished in 1209, took thirty-three years to build. It consisted

of nineteen irregular pointed arches with its piers resting on broad

foundation, which was designed *to withstand the Thames current3.

The Romanian period was followed by other periods each of

which produced its own type of architecture and building materials.

During the last hundred years many new methods of building have

been discovered. One of the most recent discoveries is the usefulness

of steel as a building material.

Nowadays when it is necessary to have a very tall building, the

frame of it is first built in steel and then the building is completed in

concrete. Concrete is an artificial kind of stone, much cheaper than

brick or natural stone and much stronger than they areiThe earliest

findings of concrete building fragments belonging to prehistoric times

were discovered in Mexico and Peru. The Egyptians in the construction

of bridges, roads and town walls employed it. There are evidences

that ancient Greeks also used concrete in the building purposes.

The use of concrete by the ancient Romans can be traced back

as far as 500 B.C. *They were the first to use4 it throughout the

ancient Roman Empire *on a pretty large scale5 and many constructions

made of concrete remain till nowadays thus proving the long

life of buildings made of concrete. Of course, it was not the concrete

people use today. It consisted of mud, clay and pure lime, which

were used to hold together the roughly broken stone in foundations

and walls. It was the so-called "pseudo concrete". The idea of such

building material might have been borrowed from the ancient Greeks

as some samples of it were found in the ruins of Pompeii.

2. A few explanations to the text

1..pyramid of Khufu ['ku'fu:] — пирамида Хуфу

2.. to withstand the Thames current. —. чтобы

противостоять течению Темзы.

3...but mention was made of it in the writings of architects

from time to time — но время от времени можно встретить

упоминание об этом в работах архитекторов.

4. They were the first to use. — они первыми использовали

5 on a pretty large scale— в довольно широких

3. Key vocabulary /expressions

art of building — искусство строить

brick [brik] — n кирпич

borrow ['borou] — v (from) занимать, заимствовать

concrete ['konkrit] — n бетон.

dome [doum]— n купол

4. Find the corresponding Russian meaning of the international

words given above in ex.5. Start compiling your own

vocabulary of international words.

ex. business ['biznis]

1) бизнес, торговля, коммерческая деятельность

2) коммерческое, торговое предприятие, фирма

3) (выгодная) сделка

4) дело, занятие, профессия

5. Explain in English the meaning of the following words:

sun-dried mud bricks

the ruins of Pompeii

harmony and pure beauty

6. Find in the text equivalent English phrases to the following

бесполезность использования стали

в качестве строительного материала

грубо обтесанный камень

они первыми использовали

в довольно широких масштабах

10.1. Read and translate the sentences

1. The more you study during the semester, the less you have to

study before exams.

2. The faster we finish our test, the sooner we can leave the

3. The louder you shout, the less you convince anyone.

4. The most you practice speaking, the better you will do it.

5. The less you speak, the more you hear.

6. Lime is a basic building material used all over the world as

today so in the ancient world.

7. The buildings were beautiful as well as useful.

8. The people began to build houses of different materials such

as mud, wood, or stone.

9. After that procedure bricks became almost as hard as stones.

10. Concrete is much stronger than brick or natural stone.

11. Put the questions to the underlined parts, of the sentences.

1. This student translates well, (who? how?)

2. His mother worked at a factory, (whose? where?)

3. She went to London yesterday, (where? when?)

4. He is the best student of our group because he works hard.

5. They will buy these books tomorrow, (what? when?)

6. I like to read newspapers, (what?)

7: We saw this film a week ago, (what? when?)

8. The teacher gave her two interestingmagazines. (whom? how

12. Finish the questions

1. We have to sign this, ?

3. You can't speak French, ?

4. He ought.to go to Moscow, ?

5. He will meet us at the airport, ?

6. Students have to register before the end of the first week of

7. The clocks will all be set back an hour on the last Sunday in

October at 3. 00 a.m. to take advantage of Daylight Savings

—Which word is shorter if you put another syllable on the end?

— Oh, there' s no answer to that question. You can't make a

word shorter by putting a syllable on the end.

— Oh, yes, you can. It's the word "short". If you put the syllable—

er on the end, it's shorter.

2. Read and try to retell the anecdote changing Direct Speech into

A tramp is asking a farmer for work.

"You can gather eggs for me", says the farmer, "if you don't

"Sir", answers the tramp with tears in his eyes", you can trust

me. For twenty years I was a manager of a bathhouse and I

never took a bath".

1. Read and translate the text

The first houses were built for the purpose of protecting their

owners from the weather and, therefore, were very simple—a roof to

keep off the rain or snow, and walls to keep out the wind.

The building erected now can be divided into two broad classifications:

they are either for housing or for industrial purpose.

As far as the material is concerned, the building can be divided

into stone (or brick), wood and concrete types. The brick is an artifical

material made of clay then burnt to harden it. The natural stone

(rubble masonry) is used for footing and foundations for external

walls carrying the load. The buildings made of stone or brick are

durable, fire-proof and have poor heat conductivity.

The tiers or levels which divide a building into stages or stories

are called floors. These may be of timber but in stone buildings they

are made of ferro-concrete details in great and small sizes.

The coverings or upper parts of buildings constructed over to

keep out rain and wind and to preserve the interior from exposure to

the weather, are called roofs. These should tie the walls and give

strength and firmness to the construction.

Every building must be beautiful in appearance and proportional

in various parts. The interior should be planned to suit the requirements

of the occupants while the exterior must be simple without any

Any building should be provided with water, electricity, ventilation

and heating system.

Getting water into the house is called plumbing. The plumbers have also to get the water out after it has been used. The first part of

this problem is called water supply and the second one is called

drainage or Sewerage.

Almost everybody saw the construction of a building and *followed

its progress with interest1. First the excavation is dug for the

basement, then the foundation walls below ground level are constructed;

after this the framework is erected and clothed with various

finishing materials and protected by several coats of paint.

The part upon which the stability of the structure depends is the

framework. It is intended for safety carrying the loads imposed. The

floors, walls, roofs and other parts of the building must be carefully

designed and proportioned.

The architect or designer must decide, what the size of the walls.

the floors, the beams, the girders and the parts, which make up the

framework, will be and how they will be placed and arranged.

Here are the main parts of a building and their functions.

V Foundations serve to keep the walls and floors from contact with

the soil, to guard them against the action of frost, to prevent thefn from

sinking and setting which cause cracks in walls and uneven floors.

Floors divide the building into stories. They may be either of timber

or may be constructed of a fire-resisting material. Walls are built

to enclose areas and carry the weight of floors and roofs. The walls

may be solid or hollow. The materials used for the walls construction

can be brick, stone, concrete and other natural or artificial materials.

Roofs cover the building and protect it from exposure to the weather.

They tie the walls and give strength and firmness to the structure.

Turnkey construction is the type of assistance in building different

facilities. In this case the employer engages the contractor to

design, manufacture, test, deliver, install, complete and commission

a certain project and the contractor undertakes full responsibility

for the project construction and commissioning.

The contractor then undertakes endeavors to conduct a survey

and design work, as well as to work out *basic and detailed engi-

neering2 and supply equipment. As a rule, the contractor's highly

qualified specialists are made responsible for doing part or full construction

works, carrying out installation, *start-up and adjustment

After the construction is completed the precommissioning starts.

that is testing, checking and meeting other requirements, which are

specified in the technical handbooks.

As soon as all works in respect of the precommissioning are completed

and the project is ready for the commissioning, the contractor

notifies the engineer (Project manager) with the message. The contractor

begins the commissioning immediately after the engineer does

the issue of the Completion Certificate.

The contractor carries out the guarantee test during the commissioning

to make sure that the project will reach the designed performance.

Operational acceptance of the project takes place when the guarantee

test has been successfully completed and the guarantees met.

As a rule the contractor supplies spare parts so that the project could

normally operate during the maintenance guarantee period.

Turnkey contracts are always long-term undertakings involving

several parties, among them foreign and local subcontractors. They

are usually won as a result of tenders where the bidders compete for

the contract on the terms most favourable for the customer. •

2. A few explanations to the text

1..followed its progress with interest.—с интересом следил

2. basic and detailed engineering — выполнение проектной

3. starting up and adjustment operations—пуско-наладочные

3. Key vocabulary / expressions

basement ['beizmant] —и фундамент, основание; подвал

beam [bi:m]— n балка, балансир

cause [ko:z]— n причина, сторона

coat — п покрытие.

commission—v пускать в эксплуатацию

contractor— п подрядчик

designed performance — проектная мощность

foundation [faun'deijn] — п основание, фундамент

framework ['freimwa:k] — п конструкция, структура

girder [' ga :da]- п поясная балка, прогон

precornrnissioning works—предпусковые работы

spare parts—v запасные части

timber ['timba] — п лесоматериал, строевой лес, балка

4. Learn to recognize the international words. Give Russian

equivalents to the following words without a dictionary

5. Test your own attention. Find English equivalents in the

различные отделочные материалы

защитить несколькими слоями краски

сертификат о завершении строительства.

строительство "под ключ"

местные и иностранные субподрядчики_

6. General understanding. Answer the guestions to the text

1. What purpose is the natural stone used for?

2. What are the buildings made of stone and brick?

3. Should the coverings tie the walls?

4. What must every building be?

5. What are the main parts of a building?

6. What are their functions?

7. What kind of facilities is constructed on a turnkey basis?

8. What are the responsibilities of the contractor?

9. Why is a turnkey contract a long-term undertaking?

10. How is a turnkey contract usually won?

11. What can the Completion Certificate tell us about?

12. What building professions have you come across in the text?

Translate the following words keeping in mind their prefixes

enclose, enable, encounter, enact, emplane, encamp, embank.

encase, enchant, encircle, embody, empoison,, encompass, encapsulate.

enclose, embed, empurple, enrich.

State to what part of speech the following words belong

according to their suffixes.

builder, appearance, possible, action, carefully, structure, com-'

petitor, equipment, military, deployment, specific, customer.

hydraulic, competitive, remember, consistency, character, assistant.

electrical, clearly, energy, useful, building.

Translate the following words as nouns and as verbs.

change, design, mention, place, manufacture, state, engineer.

use, target, base

Match the verb to the correct preposition

7. Translate the sentences with MODAL VERBS or their

1. The walls may be solid or hollow.

2. The materials used for the walls construction can be brick.

stone, concrete and other natural or artificial materials.

3. Man had to protect himself against the elements and to sustain

himself in the conflict with nature.

4. Ruins of ancient buildings can be seen today in Greece.

5. After the war steel was short in Europe and many architects

had to use concrete in their structures.

6. The production of many building materials is to be increased.

7. The roof should tie the walls and give strength to the construction.

8. The floors, walls, roofs and other parts of the building must

be carefully designed and proportioned.

9. Conditioning air for human comfort may also be divided into

two main sections- winter and summer.

10. To avoid stuffiness, the air should be given a certain amount

11. Under winter conditions this must be sufficient to distribute

the heat uniformly throughout the rooms.

12. About 100,000 people had to take part in the construction of

8. Translate the sentences with the construction "there

1. There are two new hotels under construction in this part of the

2. There exist at present different varieties of bricks.

3. There was a big transition in concrete during the times of

4. There are many ancient buildings made of concrete remaining

in Rome till nowadays.

5. Many thousands of years ago there were no houses such as

people live in today.

6. There will be a need to make remodeling of the flat in a year.

7. There are evidences that ancient Greeks also used concrete in

the building purposes.

8. There will be offices and shops on both sides of the avenue

after its reconstruction.

9. There are parks, cycling and walking tracks, and lakes in

many parts of Canberra.

3. Read and discuss the anecdote with your partner

Joseph Turner was a great English painter. He had a dog. He

liked his dog very much.

One day he was playing with his dog. Suddenly the dog broke his

leg. Turner sent for a well-known doctor.

When the doctor came, Turner said, "Doctor, my dog has broken

his leg. I know that you are too good for this work but please do it. It

is so important to me".

The doctor was angry but he did not show it.

The next day the doctor asked Turner to come to his place. Turner

promised to come as he thought that the doctor wanted to see him

When Turner came to the doctor's house, the doctor said, "Mr.

Turner, I'm so glad to see you. I'd like to ask you to paint my door.

I know that you are too good for this work but, please, do it. It is so

important to me".

Перечень рекомендуемых учебных изданий, Интернет-ресурсов, дополнительной литературы

  1. Тимофеев В.Г. Вильнер А.Б. Колесникова И.Л. и др. Учебник английского языка для 10 класса (базовый уровень) / под ред. В.Г. Тимофеева. – М.: Издательский центр "Академия", 261, 2007.
  2. Мюллер В.К. Англо-русский и русско-английский. – М.: Эксмо, p.698, 2008.
  3. Virginia Evans – Jenny Dooley Upspream. Elementary A2 Student’s book - Express Publishing, р. 145, 2007
  4. Virginia Evans – Jenny Dooley Upspream. Elementary A2 Student’s CD - Express Publishing, p. 157, 2007
  5. Virginia Evans – Jenny Dooley Upspream. Elementary A2 Workbook student’s book - Express Publishing, p. 97, 2007

  1. Global Beginner Coursebook. Кейт Пикеринг, Джеки Макэвой, - Оксфорд, Макмиллан, 2010 Global Elementary Coursebook. Линдсей Кленфилд, Ребекка Роб Бени, - Оксфорд, Макмиллан, р. 198, 2010
  2. Global Pre-intermediate Coursebook. Линдсей Кленфилд, - Оксфорд, Макмиллан, р. 199, 2010
  3. In Company Second Edition, Elementary Student's Book with CD-Rom. Саймон Кларк - Оксфорд, Макмиллан, р. 240, 2010
  4. In Company Second Edition, Pre-intermediate Student's Book with CD-Rom. Саймон Кларк - Оксфорд, Макмиллан, р. 137, 2009
  5. Virginia Evans – Jenny Doole Upload 1 Student’s / Publishing house: Express Publishing, 2011, p. 128
  6. Virginia Evans – Jenny Doole Upload 2 Student’s / Publishing house: Express Publishing, 2011, p.128
  7. Virginia Evans – Jenny Doole Upload 3 Student’s /Publishing house: Express Publishing, 2011, p. 136
  8. Virginia Evans – Jenny Doole Upload 4 Student’s /Publishing house: Express Publishing, 2011, p. 136

  1. Macmillan Guide to Science. Е.Э. Кожарская - Макмиллан, Оксфорд, p. 137, 2008
  2. Macmillan Guide to Economics. Л.К. Раицкая - Макмиллан, Оксфорд, p. 145, 2007
  3. Basic Survival, International Communication for Professional People, Peter Viney, Macmillan, p. 127, 2010
  4. Серия Oxford English for careers (Pre-Int, Int, Upper-Int. MID A2 to B2) – OUP, p. 145, 2009
  5. Oxford Business Dictionary(Upper-Int to Advanced B1 to C2) – OUP, p. 478, 2009
  6. Virginia Evans – Jenny Dooley – Veronica Garza Career Paths: Hotel Catering, Express Publishing, 2011,p.120
  7. Virginia Evans – Jenny Dooley – Veronica Garza Career Paths: Tourism E xpress Publishingpages: p.120Macmillan Guide to Science. Е.Э. Кожарская - Макмиллан, Оксфорд, p. 137, 2008
  8. Macmillan Guide to Economics. Л.К. Раицкая - Макмиллан, Оксфорд, p. 145, 2007
  9. Basic Survival, International Communication for Professional People, Peter Viney, Macmillan, p. 127, 2010
  10. Серия Oxford English for careers (Pre-Int, Int, Upper-Int. MID A2 to B2) – OUP, p. 145, 2009
  11. Oxford Business Dictionary(Upper-Int to Advanced B1 to C2) – OUP, p. 478, 2009
  12. О.Н. Мусихина, О.Г. Гисина, В.Л. Яськова "Английский язык для строителей", 2004г.

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